Tuesday, March 15, 2011

World War 1 Lawrence of Arabia

"I consider him one of the greatest people in our time … We will never see his like again. His name will live in history. He will live in the annals of war. .. He will live in the legends of Arabia.  "-Winston Churchill

Thomas Edward Lawrence, or Lawrence Arabia  '  ', known professionally as one of the most celebrated figures in the first world war was also Lawrence. To this day has become a Lawrence name invoking images of adventure, desert, and the image of a mysterious figure who never fully understood. Known for his contacts with the warring Arab tribes against the Ottoman Empire, Lawrence became one of the leaders of the Arab revolt, which began in 1916.

Lawrence/public image was partly due to the large coverage of Thomas Lowell, who in time of war, photographed and filmed by Lawrence on campaign in Palestine. After the Lovell visited World War shows and narrating his film "Allenby in Palestine " and "Lawrence of Arabia ", making himself and Lawrence household names.

As a result, Arab nationalists after World War 1, Lawrence his recently received public prominence to further support promises Arabs during the first world war, which were brought to the imperial powers.

The great war

In the summer of 1914 was Lawrence a university post-graduate who had travelled extensively throughout the Ottoman Empire. In traveling across the Middle East, Lawrence was known to the Turkish and German authorities. Lawrence came into contact with the German and Ottoman technical advisors who were building the Berlin to Baghdad railway, which was designed to unite and solidify the Ottoman Empire. This contact with the central power of civil servants and the railway was to be a significant advantage to Lawrence in the coming years.

Volunteering for the war effort, Lawrence was posted to the intelligence staff of the general officer commanding Middle East-based in Cairo. Lawrence, the first-hand experience and travels to the Middle East has proved invaluable to the allies, the Foreign Office of the Arab Bureau was set up "to take advantage of the original Arab tribes felt resentment against their Turkish overlords.

Guerilla campaign to support and finance support for outside powers, violence against the Turks, by the end of the term would be to redirect efforts and Turkey away from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and her allies. The costs would have riots in Subjugating the Ottoman allies were significantly higher costs the sponsoring undertaking.

Between 1916 and 1918, Lawrence fought with and led the Arab irregular troops in guerrilla operations against the forces of Turkey extended. Convince the Arabs not to attack the Turks head, Lawrence instigated the Arab attacks on the route of supply turkeys, the Hejaz railway. Was allowed Lawrence  pre-war experiences with Turkey's vital rail  Arab forces to maximize hit and run tactics of the Turkish troops, which linked which have been forced to protect the vital railway and its links.


In the spring of 1917, Lawrence planned a joint attack by Arab forces and Arabs Hareth Howetat which was under the leadership of Auda Abu Tayi in the strategically located but lightly defended coastal town of Aqaba. On 6 July, after a surprise attack and monumentally thought, Aqaba fell to Lawrence and his forces. The attack and taking of Aqaba was considered a great success of the strategy as the Turks believed Aqaba only could be taken from the sea as the desert around Aqaba was impassable. After Aqaba, Lawrence was promoted major and the new Chief Commander of the Egyptian expeditionary force, General Sir Edmund Hanavi saw the value and enhanced the Laurence and tactics.

After the war, Allenby commented,  "I gave him a free hand. His co-operation was marked by the utmost loyalty, and I never had anything but praise for his work, which was in fact invaluable throughout the campaign.  "

During the remainder of 1917, the Arab forces gradually pushed back mode with AF and caused irreparable damage to the war effort in the Middle East Turkey. However, the winds blow policy against Arabs and their cause.

In the last year of the war, Lawrence frantically trying to make good on promises to do the Arabs. Drive direction and the capture of Damascus in the final weeks of the war saw Lawrence's foster-Col. and design of the provisional Government of the Arab with Prince Feisal Ibn Hussein on his head.

Despite all Lawrence's efforts, all his and Arabic profits apart would come in the last year of the war. Close of the war tried Lawrence, with success and failure, to convince the British high command, that Arab independence in Britain's was in while interests. Further to this reminds, the political and military figures of the "Hussein-McMahon" that were signed between the British Government and Arab officials in 1915. " Agreement stressed that if the Arabs of Turkey from the Middle East with the support of the allies forced the allies of an Arab State would guarantee.

The secret Sykes-Picot agreement between France and the United Kingdom and the subsequent Balfour Declaration signed between Britain and Jewish officials contradicted previous promises that were given to the Arabs and the promises of Arab independence.

The political turmoil and military stretched all parties involved, including Lawrence. Shortly before arriving in Damascus, the Arab Army fell on a Turkish retreat and column orders Lawrence massacred the Turks. Pictures of Lawrence took Damascus in 1918 a man physically and mentally straining on the edge of sanity.

In the years after the war Lawrence worked as part of the delegation of the Arab/related to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. Prince Feisal  rule as King of Syria came to abrupt end in 1920 as the French forces under the command of General Mariano Goybet defeated Arab forces and entered Damascus. France  's campaign broke forever Lawrence  's vision of independent Arab Arabia.

The growth of nationalism empires in the wake of the smash and grab of the empires, colonial and political relations; Lawrence is resulted in the determination of the Arabs to win the first world war. Between 1920 and 1922, Lawrence and Gertrude Bell served as advisors to Churchill, who oversaw the Cairo Conference, which was organized to solve problems factious between parties following the breakup of the Ottoman Empire.

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